Why do colleges defer students?
Most American colleges and universities these days offer students the opportunity to apply early. Some schools may demand an early commitment, others may merely wish to gauge interest, but all early programs give students the opportunity to tell a school how much they burn to attend that institution. But come December and April (when most colleges announce their acceptances), many students will find that their dream school may accept their love, turn them down unceremoniously, or offer an ambivalently mixed message – deferment.
So why do schools defer students, and what can an applicant do about it? As with so many good intentions gone awry, early programs began as a way for students to express their strong desire to attend one particular school even as dwindling acceptance rates forced them to apply to a growing number of institutions. For admission officers, it showed which students really, really wanted to attend that school and were therefore likely to commit if they were accepted. (When I worked at Brown, we would sometimes use the shorthand B4B to describe such a student: Burning for Brown).
But over time, this is of course not how things developed. Now applying early is, for many students, unfortunately part of the gamesmanship with which they feel forced to approach college admission. For colleges, faced with applicants who now routinely apply to ten or more schools, it has become a way of exerting some control over their matriculation rates. After all, admission officers spend hours of work to identify the kids they want on their campuses, only to have those kids say no thanks as a more prestigious institution comes calling. Some schools have responded by taking a large number of students from their early application pool, or by forcing students to make an early commitment. Schools with merit-based financial aid may even use scholarship dollars to sweeten the early pot for the students they really want. Other schools (highly desirable schools who may nevertheless, in the strange world of college admission, fall in a tier below the single digit acceptors) may offer students a two-step early program: they can apply early with all the same trimmings, but at a slightly later date – a period often squeezed in between the early notification date and the regular application deadline typical of very selective schools.
Regardless of how schools manage their early application process, they all want to do two things:
- They want to accept enough reasonably committed students to ensure a high matriculation rate.
- And they still want to leave space in their freshman class for wonderful students who may not have applied early anywhere (always a sizable number even in these crazy times), or who did not get into that fabulously selective school they dreamed about but are still perfect candidates for their school.
As a result, at the end of the early application period, some very happy students will receive a letter offering them admission to their dream school. On the other side of the happiness spectrum, a relatively small percentage of students will be flatly denied – those students the school deem to have no chance of admission whatsoever during regular decision. As an aside, many school counselors and admission officers believe that the percentage of students who are denied early should realistically be far higher than it often is at more selective schools. (As a colleague of mine used to put it, “You got to rip the band-aid off!”) It is difficult for schools to do that though, when they also want to acknowledge a student’s hard work, or another student’s very visible leadership role in school, regardless of the final outcome. Sometimes admission officers may just want to avoid dealing with the unrealistic expectations and demanding ignorance of disappointed parents. I tended to favor letting early applicants down lightly by deferring them rather than denying them. I believed, and I still do, that after the stress and sheer hassle of applying to their dream school, there is often little to gain by hitting the kid hard with a deny letter in December. We encourage students to dream, and we should be careful about penalizing them for it. Of course, I say that knowing some students do need help in redirecting their energy in a more productive direction, and being denied may sometimes do just that.
The vast majority of students to more selective institutions, however, will find themselves in a strange gray zone: neither denied nor admitted, hope kept alive but with a hard dose of reality thrown in. In a next blog I will discuss what these students are to make of their fate, and whether they can improve their chances of escaping from no-man’s land, through the doors of their chosen paradise.